Themes and Sessions
- Kyoto Landslide Commitment for sustainable development
Coordinators: Kyoji Sassa, Matjaž Mikoš, Shinji Sassa, Khang Dang
- Remote sensing, monitoring and early warning
Coordinators: Veronica Tofani, Michel Jaboyedoff, Jan Klimes, Hans-Balder Havenith
- Testing, modeling and mitigation techniques
Coordinators: Binod Tiwari, Kazuo Konagai, Sabatino Cuomo, Xuanmei Fan
- Mapping, hazard, risk assessment and management
Coordinators: Paola Reichenbach, Snježana-Mihalić Arbanas, David Huntley, Maneesha Ramesh
- Climate change, extreme weather, earthquakes and landslides
Coordinators: Vít Vilímek, Alexander Strom, Stefano Luigi Gariano, Dalia Kirschbaum
- Progress in landslide science and applications
Coordinators: Zeljko Arbanas, Fawu Wang, Faisal Fathani, Beena Ajmera
Kyoto landslide commitment for sustainable development
The Kyoto 2020 Commitment for Global Promotion of Understanding and Reducing Landslide Disaster Risk (Kyoto Landslide Commitment 2020: KLC2020): A Commitment to the ISDR-ICL Sendai Partnerships 2015-2025, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, the 2030 United Nations Agenda Sustainable Development Goals, the New Urban Agenda and the Paris Climate Agreement was launched on 5 November 2020 by the adoption of 2020 Kyoto Declaration.
This theme devotes to the Kyoto Landslide Commitment 2020 for sustainable development, including the following eight sessions: 1) International Programme on Landslides, 2) Global and international activities for KLC2020, 3) Cascading multi-hazard risks: submarine landslides, tsunamis, and impacts on infrastructures, 4) Landslides and society: open and citizen science for capacity development and education, 5) Ethical, social and cultural aspects/implications in landslide risk management, 6) Locational citizen and expert landslide risk perception as major drivers of sustainable landslide risk reduction, 7) Cultural heritage threatened by landslides: from in situ investigation to sustainable mitigation measures, and 8) Earth observation to preserve natural and cultural heritage sites threatened by landslides.
Kyoji Sassa, International Consortium on Landslides, Japan
Matjaž Mikoš, UNESCO Chair on Water-related Disaster Risk Reduction, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Irasema Alcantara-Ayala, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico
The International Programme on Landslides (IPL) is a Programme of the International Consortium on Landslides (ICL) for Landslide Disaster Risk Reduction. It was originally launched in November 2002. The new IPL was defined and established by the 2006 Tokyo Action Plan “Strengthening Research and Learning on Landslides and Related Earth System Disasters for Global Risk Preparedness.” In order to promote the IPL and the 2006 Tokyo Action Plan, ICL exchanged a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with each of the seven United Nations and International Stakeholders: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), United Nations University (UNU), the International Council for Science (ICSU), and the World Federation of Engineering Organizations (WFEO). The logo of IPL includes the ICL and seven global stakeholders.
The IPL is managed by the Global Promotion Committee of the International Programme on Landslides and the Kyoto Landslide Commitment 2020 (GPC/IPL-KLC). The IPL activities include IPL projects proposed by ICL members and approved by GPC/IPL-KLC every year, and the World Centers of Excellence on Landslide Risk Reduction (WCoEs), which are proposed and approved by GPC/IPL-KLC every 3 years. This session is devoted to activity reports of ongoing IPL projects, ongoing WCOEs (2020-2023), and new proposals of IPL projects and WCOE (2023-2026).
Qunli Han, Co-Chair of the Global Promotion Committee of International Consortium on Landslides and Kyoto Landslide Commitment 2020, Executive Director of the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk (IRDR), China
Kazuo Konagai, Research director of International Consortium on Landslides, Japan
Claudio Margottini, Chair of the ICL Italian Network, UNESCO Chair on Sustainable Management of Geo-Hydrological Hazards – University of Florence, Italy
Snježana Mihalić Arbanas, Leader of the Adriatic-Balkan Network, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Session 1.2 will provide an opportunity for those international and regional organizations that have been involved in the implementation of the Kyoto Landslide Commitment 2020 (KLC2020) to report their efforts and progress since 2020, and the challenges they have encountered. By having six well-selected presentations, the WLF6 participants will be able to see how KLC2020 has been advanced with support from international organizations, regional and national networks, as well as pilot research programs and projects. The presentations and discussions of the session will help the further understanding of the growing uncertainties in terms of intensified climate extremes, the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic, and global social and economic complexities in DRR and KLC2020 in particular. The session will connect the new experiences, ideas, insights, tools, and localized solutions obtained under the overall Action Framework of KLC2020 toward the Sendai Framework and its Mid-term Review, and discuss the ways forward to further cooperation for the implementation of KLC2020.
The presentations confirmed from the following five groups:
- UNESCO work in IHP and IGGP
- ICL Italian Network
- ICL Adrian-Balkan network
- KLC2020 Japanese National Committee and Project of SATREPS
- IRDR and its projects
Shinji Sassa, National Institute of Maritime, Port and Aviation Technology, Japan
David Tappin, British Geological Survey, UK
Finn Løvholt,Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway.
Multi-hazard risks are the key and core perspective of the Kyoto Landslide Commitment. This session addresses cascading multi-hazard risks involving submarine landslides, tsunamis and impacts on infrastructures. Submarine landslide tsunamis are now seen from all geological environments; passive, convergent and strike-slip margins, as well as volcanoes. Offshore wind power is rapidly advancing to meet global requirements for sustainable development. These infrastructures are at risks from cascading multi-hazards that include landslides, tsunamis, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Understanding and reducing the multi-hazard risks will require developing a better understanding of the multiple mechanisms and multi-phased physics of the relevant cascading phenomena pertaining to landslides and landslide tsunami hazard. An international collaborative network and platform would be important for such a multi-hazard risk reduction. In this framework this session promotes understanding and reducing cascading multi-hazard risks at both the regional and global scales.
Matjaž Mikoš, UNESCO Chair on Water-related Disaster Risk Reduction, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, firstname.lastname@example.org
Irasema Alcántara-Ayala, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico
Beena Ajmera, Iowa State University, USA
KLC2020 defines in its Action 5 «Promote open communication with local governments and society through integrated research, capacity building, knowledge transfer, awareness-raising, training, and educational activities, to enable societies and local communities to develop effective policies and strategies for reducing landslide disaster risk, to strengthen their capacities for preventing hazards from developing into major disasters, and to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of relief programs.”
UNESCO is strongly supporting Open Educational Resources (OER) by adopting the Recommendation on OER in 2019 as the first international normative instrument to embrace the field of openly licensed educational materials and technologies in education. UNESCO adopted in November 2021 also the Recommendation on Open Science. Citizen scientists should be recognized as key actors of Open Science.
This Session aims at knowledge exchange among diverse stakeholders (from academic institutions, research institutions, international organizations, non-governmental organizations, engineers, policy makers, local communities), including ICL community how Open Science and Open Educational Resources can and should be developed in the field of capacity development and education for landslide risk reduction. Reports and expertise papers, case studies and best practices are welcome to shed light on how these new educational and research ways have already been or may be successfully applied worldwide to meet the Sendai Framework 2015-2030 for Disaster Risk Reduction and the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development Goals in the field of Landslide Disaster Risk Reduction.
Peter T. Bobrowsky, Natural Resources Canada – Sidney – BC – Canada/International Association for Promoting Geoethics – IAPG, Canada
Irasema Alcántara-Ayala, Institute of Geography – National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico
Giuseppe Di Capua, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome, Italy – International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG), Italy
Claudio Margottini, UNESCO Chair on the Prevention and Sustainable Management of Geo-Hydrological Hazards – University of Florence, Italy
Silvia Peppoloni, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome, Italy – International Association for Promoting Geoethics (IAPG), Italy
The science and practice of landslide research primarily aims to better understand the nature, distribution, and behavior of all types of landslides under a broad range of conditions and across the widest spectra of environments. Landslide research further aims to use this understanding to ensure that the health and well-being of individuals, communities, societies and the related socio-cultural structure, such as critical infrastructure, is secure through disaster risk management, including education, preparedness and best practices deployed in a timely and professional manner. By definition, landslide related studies are often subject to many factors that can negatively influence the impartiality, transparency, inclusivity, and standards of conduct of individuals. Today more than ever before, landslide researchers need to critically evaluate all stages of their work from site selection, project goals, participation, output dissemination, quality control, data sharing, authorship, accountability, and other issues based on a foundation of ethical values and practice. This session provides an opportunity to present and discuss a suite of topics, case studies and strategies that are germane to ethical landslide research. We encourage practitioners to submit contributions related to landslide ethics as examples include conflicts of interest, gender/ageism biases, questionable peer reviewing, breaches of standards, work safety avoidance, developed country favoritism, information hoarding, rumor impacts, social media abuse, limiting education, and respecting privacy are but a few examples of the many ethical issues that can impede the positive growth and progress in landslide studies.
This session is sponsored by the International Association for Promoting Geoethics – IAPG.
Jan Klimes, IRSM CAS, Czech Republic
Irasema Alcantara-Ayala, National Autonomous University of Mexico
Pavel Raska, Czech Republic
The session aims to open a new strand of discussion about locational decisions of human activities and the actions taken to reduce the landslide risks in a sustainable, long-term perspective. While we could observe a paradigm shift in landslide risk reduction towards vulnerability-based research and practice, it remains unclear how risk perceptions by communities exposed to landslide risks influences their psychological and physical vulnerability, and how (if so) can these perceptions drive behavioral decisions about adaptive measures and actions. Several behavioral theories and models, such as protection motivation theory or protective action decision model, have been adopted from psychology to provide new insights on this matter, but these were mainly translated into other – and partly specific – hazard settings, such as flood-prone areas, while lacking operationalization for landslide risk reduction. There is also lack of attention dedicated to how risk perceptions or institutional settings, including grant policies, drive behavioral decisions of landslide experts about their involvement in long-term, locational landslide risk reduction studies. This session wants to facilitate a debate on the legitimacy, effectiveness and efficacy of the recent accent on community resilience, which have recently been criticized in the academia. In particular, using the landslide risk perception empirical evidence the session wants to explore how more nuanced approaches may be developed to reach adequate responsibility sharing between individuals, communities, governments and scientists, in order to reduce disasters resulting from landslides. Furthermore, the aim of this session is to attract contributions aiming at narrowing the gap between technical and engineering advancements in the landslide knowledge and scientific definitions and perceptions of landslide risk, on one hand, and the perceptions, ability and willingness of the exposed communities to effectively reduce landslide risk, on the other.
Claudio Margottini, Unesco Chair on Sustainable Management of Geo-Hydrological Hazards – University of Florence, Italy
William Frodella, Unesco Chair on Sustainable Management of Geo-Hydrological Hazards – University of Florence, Italy
Daniele Spizzichino, Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), Italy
Nacho Gallego Revilla, Royal Commission for Alula, Saudi Arabia
Tangible Cultural Heritage (TCH) plays a key role in building the memory and roots of human society. Unfortunately, TCH sites are often threatened by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods and landslides; further damage can also arise from the fragility of the site’s structures and materials with respect to anthropogenic hazards (destructive sabotage, war) and incorrect urban planning. The protection and conservation of TCH sites are pressing issues not only for the conservators/scientists community but for the whole society. For a correct conservation strategy, it is necessary to implement a specific inter-disciplinary approach, that should be planned considering the site characteristics (topography, geomorphological-geological setting) and typology of the related hazard. In this perspective the correct general approach starts from detailed field surveys, sample laboratory analysis, geotechnical and geophysical analysis, stability model till sustainable mitigation measures (both using and combining traditional knowledge and advanced technology) and through the adoption of low environmental impact monitoring system implementation. The goal of this Session is to gather high-quality original contributions and case studies for protection and conservation of tangible Cultural and Natural Heritage sites affected by landslide hazard, including but not limited to the UNESCO World Heritage sites, enhancing the role of sustainable mitigation practices and preventive management plans. A special attention will be given to traditional mitigation measures, in order to mitigate the impact of engineering works and to ensure long term sustainability.
Stefano Morelli, University of Urbino “Carlo Bo”, Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, Italy
Roberta Bonì, University of Urbino “Carlo Bo”, Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, Italy
Rosa María Mateos Ruiz, Instituto Geológico y Minero de España (CSIC), Spain
Many world heritage sites are threatened by different geohazards such as landslide phenomena, that preclude our capacity to pass them on to future generations. Natural landscapes, geoparks, and cultural heritage sites are part of them as irreplaceable places to preserve. Some of these areas belong to the UNESCO World Heritage List, others aspire to be part of it and many others, while not included, still have a high value for our cultural, biological and evolutionary roots. To preserve them, the impacts of landslides on cultural and natural sites should be analyzed over a large scale and for a long-time period.
In the perspective of the increasing spreading of active or passive remote-sensing technologies (e.g., synthetic aperture radar interferometry – InSAR, optical, Lidar and hyperspectral analysis) and thanks to the availability of freely downloadable SAR images within the Copernicus initiative (European Union’s Earth observation program), a new era is open, allowing for non-invasive and low-cost investigations of natural and cultural heritage sites exposed to landslides.
New challenges for the use of Earth Observation (EO) technologies will be aimed to test their capabilities not only for the investigation but also, for the management, monitoring and preservation of natural and cultural heritage sites.
In this session, we welcome contributions from research to case histories that focus on the use of EO technologies, the application of combined techniques and integrated synergistic approaches to study world heritage sites threatened by slope instabilities.
Topics of interest include (not limited to):
- Exploitation of InSAR data to monitor and preserve all types of heritage sites threatened by landslide phenomena;
- Integrated monitoring system from different platforms to: i) investigate the surface and subsurface movements, ii) support of safety activities, and iii) the enhancement of the territory;
- Procedure to evaluate the impact of the landslide on the heritage sites and plan sustainable protection and management.
Remote sensing, monitoring and early warning
The implementation of effective disaster risk reduction strategies is provided by landslide monitoring, remote sensing, early warning, and alarm, which are tools and methods used to characterize and to forecast the potential occurrence of landslides, or to survey failure and propagation. In the last years, a significant progress has occurred in these fields thanks to the development of innovative field monitoring instrumentations, Earth Observation (EO), advanced terrestrial remote sensing technologies, as well as the development of early warning systems at local and regional scales. Theme 2 “Remote sensing, monitoring and early warning” includes 12 scientific sessions and welcomes contributions related to case studies, state of the art research and application on landslide monitoring, use of EO data for landslide investigation, risk assessment and management, analysis of displacement monitoring data for landslide prediction, development of innovative early warning systems, SAR interferometry, geophysical imaging, multi-platform and multi-sensor monitoring data.
Philipp Marr, University of Vienna, Austria
Thomas Glade, University of Vienna, Austria
Chris Massey, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited (GNS Science), New Zealand
Dalia Kirschbaum, United States Geological Survey, USA
Raymond W.M. Cheung, Geotechnical Engineering Office, Civil Engineering and Development Department, Hong Kong
Landslides constitute one of the major natural threats to human lives, settlements and infrastructure. To reduce the number of affected humans and the destruction caused by landslides, different approaches such as improved land-use-planning and risk awareness of the potentially affected communities are applied. Landslide monitoring is a key tool which increases our knowledge on landslide dynamics, and can be used to alert potentially affected persons and communities. In this context, experiences and examples from case studies provide a valuable source of information, e.g., for exploring innovative methodologies or in-depth examination of surface and subsurface dynamics of landslides.
Landslide monitoring plays an important role in gaining knowledge about fundamental landslide processes. Monitoring systems focus on changes on the surface or subsurface, or on the combination of both. The potential sensors range for different landslide types (e.g., rockfall, debris flow, translational or rotational landslide) and kinematics (fast rockfall up to a slow creeping deep seated failure). The monitoring methods cover all kinds of technologies, ranging from the application of traditional monitoring methods (e.g., inclinometers, extensometers, piezometers) to the improvement of new and advanced technologies, including remote sensing (e.g., InSAR, optical fibres) and geophysical methods.
The aim of this session is to explore the variety and experiences of methods applied within specific case studies. Contributions may focus on conceptual and methodological monitoring strategies, on different kind of sensors and analysis, thresholds and issued warnings., are particularly welcome. In this session the presentation of case studies is anticipated in various multi-temporal and spatial contexts. Experiences of landslide monitoring systems embedded in landslide early warning strategies are most welcome, as well as inter- and transdisciplinary innovative approaches, in particular at an experimental stage.
Christine Fey, Institute of Applied Geology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
Christina Rechberger, Institute of Applied Geology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
Chiara Crippa, Department of Earth and Environmental Science University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy
Louise Vick, Department of Geosciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
Landslides in remote and inaccessible terrain, such as mountainous regions, are challenging to investigate due to their complex evolutive style, the lack of monitoring data, and logistical difficulties in installing ground-based monitoring instrumentation. However, the investigation of landslides is important: i) to prevent cascade effects that can lead to long runouts and potentially endanger infrastructure, and ii) to understand the influence of changing boundary conditions due to climate change such as melting glaciers, permafrost degradation and changing in precipitation. Remote sensing data such as imagery, laser scanning and interferometric radar from terrestrial, airborne and spaceborne platforms offer a good possibility to analyze: i) the retrospective landslide development over a longer period, and ii) the current landslide deformation behavior. Data from different sensors and platforms differ in the temporal and spatial resolution. The spatial coverage, especially of deep-seated landslides, is very inhomogeneous and not all parts of the landslide are detected at the same time with the same resolution and with the same sensor. A compilation of different data is necessary and an uncertainty assessment for the interpretation of surface displacements is needed. In addition to these uncertainties, remote sensing data only provides information about surface change and no subsurface information. In this context, the interpretation of the derived surface deformation data together with geological field data and numerical modelling techniques is important to understand the subsurface mechanisms and processes of deep-seated landslides. This session focuses on integrated applications from remote sensing and their combination with landslide data from geological mapping, in situ measurements and numerical modelling methods aiming at exploiting all the information on geometry, kinematics and processes needed to understand the landslide past and present evolution. We encourage to discuss the data and method uncertainties and their consequences for geological interpretation.
Daniele Giordan, Research institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection, Italy
Lars Harald Blikra, The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Norway
Giovanni B. Crosta, Milano Biccocca University, Italy
Jean-Philippe Malet, Institut Terre et Environnement / University of Strasbourg, France
Nick J. Rosser, Durham University, United Kingdom
The recent evolution of landslide monitoring has been supported by the development of several technologies that allow the combined assessment of both ground surface and at depth displacements, as well as the acquisition of additional dynamic landslide parameters. Nowadays, complex monitoring networks are considered an essential element for the characterization of landslide kinematics and for the identification of critical conditions, which hold clues towards future risks. The importance of landslide monitoring networks is not limited to characterizing the movement of the gravitational process but is also vital for the calibration of numerical simulations, the analysis of future scenarios and the definition of thresholds. The latter is a crucial step for activating early warning procedures that are increasingly central for the management of risks related to landslide failure or collapse, particularly where there is potential for their interaction with infrastructure or assets. Adopting early warning procedures requires implementing and integrating a robust monitoring network that can often be hard to manage, both because of the quantity of generated data, and because of the complexity in carrying out a synthesis of the observations in order to build a reliable and usable conceptual landslide model. This session aims at collecting valuable experiences from case studies, where the deployment of a monitoring network supported a relevant understanding of the landslide evolution, its behavior and innovative procedures that consider, in particular: i) challenges and operative solutions for the use of complex landslide monitoring networks, ii) codified practices for the definition of thresholds, iii) innovative solutions for effective management of early warning procedures.
Guglielmo Rossi, Civil Protection Centre – University of Florence, Italy
Stratis Karantanellis, University of Michigan – Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, USA
Lidia Loiotine, University of Lausanne – Faculty of Geosciences and Environment, Switzerland
Carlo Tacconi Stefanelli, University of Florence, Department of Erath Sciences, Italy
Francesco Mugnai, University of Florence Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Italy
Marco Mulas, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences, Italy
Nowadays, active landslides can be identified and monitored with several platforms, ranging from terrestrial to crewed/uncrewed aerial vehicles or spaceborne satellites. Despite the imaging sensor adopted, the scientific community has extensive options in terms of image processing algorithms, which have been developed to detect changes and/or to derive spatially distributed displacements over time. The vast combinations of sensors and platforms, coupled with the significant range of geometric and temporal resolution, can lead to countless applications, such as UAV surveying and monitoring.
The combination of more sets of sensors and platforms integrated with ground truth datasets allows the development of solutions, methodologies and combination of techniques, such as photomonitoring. In this way different results, in the framework of landslide characterization and interpretation, can be achieved. These may include surface properties, glaciological processes, soil classification, displacement and morphological change detection and vegetation analysis.
This session will bring together the research community to present an overview of the recent innovations on airborne instruments, innovative processing algorithms, developments and observations for landslide characterization and monitoring.
Hans-Balder Havenith, University of Liege, Belgium
Veronica Pazzi, University of Trieste and University of Florence, Italy
Salvatore Martino, University of Rome (La Sapienza), Italy
Anne-Sophie Mreyen, University of Liege, Belgium
Romy Schlögel, Centre Spatial de Liege and University of Liege, Belgium
Investigation of landslides and monitoring for landslide detection are more and more approached by combining inputs from surface and subsurface data. The combination of close-range sensing and geophysical data provide a more complete view of active mass movements and landslide-prone contexts. Often these surveys are organized separately, and a full integration of surface and subsurface information is barely performed. Most data representations lack a digital environment that allows for a joint interpretation of remote sensing and geophysical data, also due to the different scales of related studies. 3D geomodelling can provide a better cross-validate surface and subsurface information. Geophysical data interpretation in particular can be affected by high levels of uncertainty; therefore, a well-integrated and jointly modelled surface and geophysical data will likely help reducing this uncertainty.
In addition, especially for large mass movements or group of investigated massive failures, the surface and subsurface models, even if well-constructed by integrating all processed inputs and outputs, are difficult to be analyzed and interpreted due to the complexity of information included in the models. Traditional maps and section views may not be sufficient to get a deeper insight into the landslide structure, and into the dynamics of failure processes. 3D geomodels generally provide a clearer overview of integrated datasets and, additionally, strongly support the construction of the input models for numerical simulations.
Finally, this session also covers the close-range sensing for detecting precursors of landslide occurrence as well as the monitoring of geophysical parameters changes within existing deforming masses, which produce valuable information on the ground deformation regime and help predict massive failures. Contributions presenting field lab results that combine both types of surface and subsurface imaging, as well as landslide process identification and surveying are particularly welcome.
David Huntley, Geological Survey of Canada-Pacific Division, Canada
Jessica Holmes, University of Newcastle, UK
Jonathan Chambers, British Geological Survey of Canada, UK
James Whiteley, British Geological Survey of Canada, UK
Surya Parkash, National Institute of Disaster Management, India
Peter Bobrowsky, Geological Survey of Canada – Pacific Division, Canada
In many countries, ageing railways, highways, pipelines, and power transmission along transportation corridors and in expanding urban centers are increasingly at risk from landslides triggered by extreme weather events and climate change. Effective design of geohazard monitoring, management, and disaster risk-reduction protocols require a fundamental understanding of the spatial and temporal changes in composition, structure, and behavior of landslides that adversely affect vulnerable infrastructure. The objective of this session is to explore capacity enhancement for socio-economically significant infrastructure and resilience to landslides through applications of geoinformatics and geophysical technologies. Above ground, orbiting satellite platforms and remote piloted aircraft systems with optical, synthetic aperture radar, light detection and ranging, and hyperspectral sensors (when benchmarked with ground-based real-time global navigation satellite system measurements) provide cm-scale resolution geospatial point-cloud data on the geographic and temporal distribution of landslide activity. Below ground, non-invasive near surface geophysical techniques to acquire information non-invasively about large volumes of the subsurface, including information on internal geological structures and failure mechanisms, as well as how and where groundwater flows through landslide bodies and surrounding bedrock. Commonly applied geophysical methods deployed in landslide investigations and monitoring are electrical resistivity tomography; frequency modulated electromagnetic conductivity; ground-penetrating radar; seismic primary wave refraction; multichannel analysis of shear waves; and fiber optic systems. In this Session, we invite you to present recent advances in the development and application of remote sensing and shallow geophysics to map and monitor landslides in proximity to highways, railways, urban infrastructure, agricultural and industrial lands, and sensitive ecosystems.
Federico Agliardi, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Italy
Benedetta Dini, Université de Grenoble-Alpes, ISTerre, France
Mylène Jacquemart, ETH Zurich, Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology (VAW), Switzerland
Andrea Manconi, WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF, CERC, Switzerland
Alessandro Mondini, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica (IRPI), Italy
The Alpine setting is a complex system of different glacial, paraglacial and periglacial environments rapidly changing due to global warming. In this context, landscape evolution is affected by a variety of mass movements including paraglacial slow rock slope deformations, rock and debris slides, and periglacial features such as rock glaciers. Different types of mass movements are driven by a range of processes, evolve at different rates, and can pose varying degrees of risk to lives, human activities and infrastructures. Managing these risks requires capabilities to systematically map and classify these processes at different scales, assess their activity and evolution towards destabilization, and predict their interactions with the elements at risk.
Remote sensing techniques exploiting passive and active sensors (e.g., optical, multispectral, thermal, SAR) mounted on different platforms (satellites, aircrafts, drones, ground-based) are nowadays fundamental tools for managing alpine mass movements both at the regional and site-specific scales. The unprecedented availability of remote sensing big data offers new possibilities of integration and multiscale studies, allowing us to study mass movement processes by means of a full spectrum of physical quantities and by exploiting Artificial Intelligence techniques. In addition, remote sensing shows a great potential to support advanced numerical modeling of mass movement processes at local scales, as well as to analyze the evolution and interaction with natural and man-made structures.
In this session we will bring together researchers from different communities, interested in a better understanding of alpine mass movements and the use of remote sensing data and methods for geomorphological, geohazard and engineering applications. We welcome contributions proposing new approaches aiming at sensors and platforms integration at regional and local-scales, and machine learning attempts.
Maria Teresa Brunetti, Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica, CNR, Perugia, Italy
Giriraj Amarnath, International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Silvia Peruccacci, Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica, CNR, Perugia, Italy
Thomas Stanley, University of Maryland, Baltimore, CO, USA
Luca Brocca, Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica, CNR, Perugia, Italy
Landslides are among the most dangerous natural hazards, particularly in developing countries with highly populated areas, where ground-based observations and data are lacking or incomplete.
In these areas, Earth observation (EO) data (e.g., topography, soil moisture, precipitation, vegetation) can be an important tool for the detection and monitoring of landslides and for their prediction both in space and in time.
The session is open to multidisciplinary contributions on:
- the use of EO in modelling landslide hazard, vulnerability and risk;
- the implementation of EO data in Landslide Early Warning Systems (LEWS);
- the development of validation procedures in the application of EO data in landslide prediction;
- current limits and future perspectives of EO products in landslide prediction
Early-stage researchers are welcome to present their research.
Matteo Del Soldato, Earth Science Department of the University of Firenze, Firenze, Italy
Lorenzo Solari, Centre Tecnologic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC), Division of Geomatics, Castelldefels, Spain
Guadalupe Bru, Spanish National Survey (IGME-CSIC), Madrid
Qingkai Meng, Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, China
Rosa Maria Palau Berasegui, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Oslo, Norway
Landslides have every year a huge socio-economic impact on the population, causing sometimes fatalities. The population growth induces uncontrolled urban expansion with new buildings on dormant or unknown landslides. There is a urgent demand for mapping and monitoring tools to support landslide management and mitigation strategies. Among the remote sensing observation techniques, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has become one of the most widely applied for landslide studies. InSAR data are now recognized as everyday ground motion measurement tools by a wide spectrum of users ranging from civil protection authorities to the industry.
Recently, the number of users accessing and analysing InSAR data has greatly increased thanks to the growing availability of free-to-use images, as the ones provided by Sentinel-1, or open processed products, as the ones coming from regional, national and continental ground motion services (e.g., the European Ground Motion Service or InSAR Norway). The development of open-source analysis software and the access to powerful cloud computing platforms have facilitated and sped up the InSAR analysis.
Authors are invited to present innovative approaches and methods based on InSAR analyses for landslides investigation, mapping and monitoring. Case studies involving the synergic use of in situ and remote sensing resources are particularly welcome, as well as applications showing the positive impact of InSAR data on civil protection practices. The research works shall cover a broad range of topics, which may include, but are not limited to:
- Mapping of landslides over wide areas;
- Near-real-time monitoring experiences;
- Monitoring of landslides by means of innovative InSAR approaches;
- Combination of InSAR and ground-based measurements;
- Single landslide characterization;
- integrating InSAR data and landslide models;
- Integration of InSAR data in landslide susceptibility model and impact evaluation;
- Local and regional scale applications for landslide post-event mapping;
- Definition of risk scenarios supported by InSAR data.
Massimiliano Bordoni, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia, Italy
Luca Ciabatta, Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection, National Research Council, Italy
Evelina Volpe, Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection, National Research Council, Italy
Thomas Stanley, University of Maryland, USA
Many regions worldwide are coping with the climatic global change, which is increasing the occurrence of extreme hydro-meteorological events. Landslides across a territory could increase significantly respect to actual and past scenarios, causing a modification of both the susceptibility of a region and the frequency of their triggering.
The use of techniques able to monitor and to predict these phenomena at different scales and in scarcely instrumented regions is fundamental. Soil moisture and rainfall measured through remote sensing can represent reliable and widespread data. For rainfall, state-of-the-art products cover decennial time series (e.g., Global Precipitation Measurement, EUMETSATH SAF). For soil moisture, different products can bring reliable measurements from a local/landscape to continental scales (e.g., SMMR, AMSR2, SMOS, SMAP, Metop/ASCAT, Sentinel 1). Innovative products, as soil moisture-derived rainfall, allow to retrieve rainfall from satellite soil moisture or integrating field measurements of precipitation. With enhanced spatial and temporal resolutions, satellite products could become a tool for early warning strategies for landslides, providing useful information in few hours.
This session aims to collect research concerning the most recent progress on use of soil moisture and rainfall data from remote sensing for monitoring and predicting landslides. We encourage presentations related to:
- inter-validation between land surface models, remote sensing approaches and in-situ monitoring;
- evaluation and trend analysis of soil moisture or rainfall satellite time series for monitoring landslides and for identifying triggering conditions;
- implementation of satellite measures of rainfall and soil moisture in physically-based or data-driven methods for the prediction of landslides;
- use of remote sensing products of soil moisture and rainfall in early warning system tools for landslides;
- use of remote sensing products for investigating the effects of climatic global changes on the susceptibility and hazards towards landslides.
Katsuo Sasahara, Kochi University, Japan
Michael Hendry, University of Alberta, Canada
Emanuele Intrieri, University of Florence, Italy
Renato Macciotta Pulisci, University of Alberta, Canada
David Elwood, University of Saskatchewan, Canada
The purpose of a landslide monitoring system is to provide reliable data for collecting in time the information regarding an unstable slope, to make a correct prediction of the kinematics and the evolutionary process. Among the wide set of parameters that can be possibly monitored, the most direct indicators of a slope stability are kinematic parameters, that is displacement and its velocity and acceleration.
For this reason, if the acquisition frequency is compatible with the evolution velocity of a landslide, the kinematic monitoring can be the base of early warning systems, which in many instances are the only (or at least the most cost-effective) possible countermeasures to reduce the risk represented by a collapse. Furthermore, acquisition frequencies for (near) real-time monitoring systems have transitioned to smaller time intervals. This allows an enhanced understanding of the response of a landslide to precipitation events, fluctuations in groundwater or water bodies at the toe of the slopes, anthropogenic activity (e.g., pit blasting operations, excavation), amongst others.
In the last 10 years significant developments have been made regarding displacement monitoring from spaceborne (for example in terms of revisit time), airborne (with the diffusion of drones) and ground-based sensors (new technologies such as micro electromechanical systems, wireless sensors networks, internet of things, improved radar techniques), other than continuous innovations concerning new software and algorithms (for example to cope with big data).
Such technological progresses generate more and higher quality data and better tools to interpret them, that in turn can lead to improve the understanding of landslides mechanics, to derive new methods to forecast the time of failure or to enhance the existing ones.
This session will welcome novel developments and practical applications of enhanced landslide displacement monitoring tools and approaches, as well as data analysis for improved understanding and forecasting of landslides with various scales from shallow landslides to deep-seated landslides, recent developments in technology, applications of early warning systems, and case histories applicable to the development of early warning systems. Papers may include (i) sensors and instruments, and/or (ii) data analysis and time to failure projections.
Samuele Segoni, University of Firenze, Italy
Manfred Stähli, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland
Neelima Satyam, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Civil Engineering, India
Annette Patton, Sitka Sound Science Center, Sitka, AK, USA; University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA
Luca Piciullo, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway
Graziella Devoli, Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE), Oslo, Norway
Landslide Early Warning Systems (LEWS) are operated worldwide to assess the imminent landslide danger and allow the timely evacuation of people at risk. LEWS can be applied at different spatial scales: operational and prototypal LEWS have been proposed and applied from slope to national scales. In addition to a competent and reliable operation, warning services face the great challenge of integrating new methods and technologies into proven systems to enhance their accuracy and performance. This session aims at discussing recent innovations to overcome current deficits in the successful operation of LEWS. Innovations may include new techniques for landslide detection, novel approaches and data for landslide forecasting, and enhanced technologies for ingesting and disseminating landslide information. This session addresses LEWS at all scales and stages of maturity. Test cases describing operational application of consolidated approaches are welcome, as well as works dealing with promising recent innovations, even if still at an experimental stage. The session will also welcome contributions highlighting how operators deal with the implementation of new methods that are promising but not yet established: a particular focus will be on the integration of innovations into established workflows and on the exploration of the trade-off between reliability and technical advancement. In addition, the session will cover all the LEWS aspects closely connected with social sciences, including communication strategies and the social perception of warnings and uncertainties. Ultimately, we would like to stimulate a discussion between developers of innovations and those who are in charge of making the best possible use of them. This is in the spirit of a recently founded international network, LandAware, with experts on LEWS from 48 countries worldwide.
Testing, modelling and mitigation techniques
Landslides cause a significant loss of lives and properties globally and annually. While comprehensive efforts, both with soft and hard measures, are required to mitigate landslide hazards, field as well as laboratory-based investigations, testing, and modeling play significant roles in designing and implementing the mitigation measures. In the past few decades, due to the advancement of computing and sensing technology, we have witnessed a significant advancement in landslide investigation and laboratory analyses, as well as field testing methods. Moreover, with the significant enhancement in high-speed computing infrastructure, the availability of robust computer programs, better materials for physical modeling, and the improvement in sensor as well as internet technology, both numerical and physical modeling techniques on landslide related research/investigation have shown a massive evolution. As a result, we currently have the availability of much advanced landslide mitigation techniques , compared to several decades ago. This theme covers many sessions that will include presentations from a wider scope pertinent to recent advancements in landslide testing, modeling, and mitigation techniques.
Binod Tiwari, California State University, Fullerton, USA
Beena Ajmera, Iowa State University, USA
Knowing the properties of soil and rock as well as ground condition is important while performing analysis to design the mitigation measures. With the advancement in sensor technology and computing facilities, there have been a significant advancement in material testing, both in the laboratory as well as in in-situ testing. More importantly, test data analysis methods have also been advanced, so that the test data can be inputted directly into the numerical analysis in the format expected in the analysis. This session invites abstracts from researchers/ practitioners particular on the studies pertinent to material testing in laboratory, to evaluate material properties including but not limited to shear strength, elastic and shear modulus, compressibility, permeability, Poisson’s ratio, suction, tensile strength, pore pressure, dynamic properties, mineralogical and chemical properties, and durability. Moreover, abstracts are also invited from researchers/practitioners for potential presentation in the area of in-situ testing to evaluate various soil, rock and ground parameters such as material resistance, compressibility, pore pressures, in-situ stresses, seismic properties, permeability, and many other properties generally needed for the analysis of landslide and other mass movements.
Salvatore Martino, Department of Earth Sciences and CERI Research Centre of the University of Rome “Sapienza”, Italy
Dagar Bakun-Mazor, SCE – Shamoon College of Engineering, Israel
Chiara Colombero, Polytechnic University of Turin, Italy
Martin Ziegler, Swiss Geological Survey, Switzerland
Long-term geological as well as man-made processes can affect (i.e., damage) rock masses over time and turn them into instabilities that can fail dramatically over much shorter time scales once triggered. Natural field laboratories, instrumented with monitoring systems, allow for testing new technologies on site and assess rock mass predisposition states and failure processes. Data processing from multiparametric and multisensory systems is indeed a key step towards risk mitigation and early warning strategies aiming at identifying precursor signals or alert thresholds in real time. Field datasets provide important constraints for analytical and numerical models.
To date, particular attention is paid to the role of hydro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects that cause rock mass damage. Damaging processes include diurnal or seasonal cooling and heating cycles, freezing of water in rock fractures, variations in the rock and rock mass saturation state, and ground vibrations affecting or even emitted by the rock mass undergoing fracturing.
The spatio-temporal evolution of monitored precursor signals predating global failure can contribute to the assessment of the state of an instability and aid in identifying and sizing the underlying key processes. The design of natural laboratories by means of instrumentation deployment on slopes prone to landslide damage and failure is, thus, a stimulating and promising prospect for technological, geoengineering, and scientific research.
In this session, we want to discuss field experiments that include novel designs or technological solutions for in-situ monitoring. We also want to address computational processes for the analysis of big datasets recorded by multiparametric and multisensory systems in field laboratories via cause-effects observational approaches, statistical or probabilistic procedures, as well as artificial neural networks.
Binod Tiwari, California State University, Fullerton, USA
Beena Ajmera, Iowa State University, USA
Stability analysis of slopes plays a significant role in understanding the behavior of slopes so that appropriate protection measures can be designed. With the advancement in analysis methods, computing technology, and speed of computer processors, we have seen a significant advancement in slope stability and deformation analysis methods. In particular, several 3-D and 4-D analyses methods have been successfully implemented in the recent decades. Even for 2-D analysis methods, approach to input soil/ground properties in reasonable ways have made our slope stability analyses more accurate – close to field situation. In this session, we invite abstracts from practitioners/researchers who have developed or practiced different slope stability analysis methods in the evaluation of landslides or mass movements or worked in case studies of landslide hazard mitigation where slope stability analyses were performed to design and monitor the protection measures.
Sabatino Cuomo, University of Salerno, Italy
Mario Martinelli, Deltares, Netherlands
Vikas Thakur, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway
Clarence Choi, University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong
Many geo-disasters in the world are related to landslides. They endanger the resident populations, and cause severe economic and functional losses, especially in urbanized areas, due to direct damage to the existing structures and indirect costs related to the disruption of strategic corridors.
Landslide-Structure-Interaction (LSI) is a topical issue, and the new challenges consist in how to reconcile prevention and remediation actions with the Sustainability Development Goals of UN Agenda 2030.
In such a framework, the use of innovative materials, new technical solutions, and low-carbon options require a clear understanding of the interaction mechanisms.
In this session, works on different types of landslides are very welcome: from slow-moving deep-seated landslides to shallow flowslides and rock-falls. The consequent impact on pipelines, railways corridors or roads, houses (single or in a cluster) is also of interest.
We encourage in particular a focus on deformation mechanisms along the slope, in the landslide body, and for the structure will be appreciated. C omparison of models towards field measurements and monitoring are also very welcome.
This session aims at bringing together laboratory and numerical experts to discuss the state of the art, sharing present and future perspectives in the field of physical and numerical modelling of interactions between landslide phenomena and structures.
Giovanni Crosta, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, Italy
Franck Bourrier, French National Institute for Agriculture, Food, and Environment (INRAE), France
Anna Giacomini, The University of Newcastle Callaghan, Australia
Shiva Pudasaini, University of Bonn, Germany
Falls and avalanches are landslide phenomena that cover a wide range of events, from small, short runouts to extreme highly energetic and rapid movements. The broad spectrum of behaviors generates major challenges in the prediction, monitoring and modeling of the wide range of mechanisms and interactions involved.
Rockfall risk management requires scientific tools for the prediction of the main predisposing and controlling/triggering factors, the monitoring of the detachment, propagation and potential reach of instrumented sites, and the modeling of rockfall trajectories. Uncertainties and secondary factors, such as fragmentation and the possible interaction with structural countermeasures or even natural obstacles and trees, will also be thoroughly considered. The volumes involved can vary noticeably, together with modes of evolution and propagation and, progressively, the mechanisms and modelling tools.
Rock avalanche risk management requires a more developed or structured approach, with pre-failure investigation, the remote or in situ monitoring of initial sliding motion, the definition of thresholds for the transition to a possible collapse, and the modeling of propagation under very complex conditions, as well as with the chance to trigger cascading events.
This session focuses on the analysis of these phenomena under the above-mentioned aspects with the aim to present innovative ideas and point of views concerning the in-depth description of case studies, and the development of new monitoring and modeling practices and techniques.
David J. Peres , University of Catania, Department of Civil Engineering ad Architecture, Italy
Francesco Marra, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (ISAC), National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Bologna, Italy
Elena Leonarduzzi, High Meadows Environmental Institute, Princeton University, USA
Chao Zhao, School of Geography and Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China
Ben Mirus, U.S. Geological Survey, Landslides Hazards Program, Denver, CO, USA
Predicting landslides is essential to reduce casualties and damages associated with their occurrence. We can think of landslide prediction as a problem at two temporal scales: landslide forecasting, which aims at predicting landslide occurrence in the near future for early warning, and landslide projection, which aims at predicting changes in landslide risk on a longer timescale, usually including the impacts of climate change and land-use alterations. In both cases, uncertainties, either aleatory or epistemic, are a key aspect. For instance, in landslide forecasting, it is essential to estimate and account for uncertainties from an early stage, in order to assess the reliability of landslide triggering thresholds, considering that large uncertainties may impact the design of an optimal warning system. In this context, it is thus important to consider uncertainties associated with the data used for calibrating the warning system, with the assumptions and simplifications made in its design, and with the data (typically meteorological forecasts) used operationally in the system. These uncertainties become even larger when the focus is on long-term prediction, affected by the very large spread of future scenarios generated through global and regional climate models.
This session welcomes contributions dealing with the assessment and reduction of uncertainties in any of the above components, either through advanced statistical techniques or alternative data sources. Contributions dealing with, but not limited to, the following topics are welcome:
- aleatory uncertainty analysis (e.g., Monte Carlo, bootstrapping);
- propagation of the uncertainty in the meteorological forecasts to the reliability of landslides predictions and on warning system design;
- uncertainty in climate change projections and related impact assessments;
- machine learning algorithms and multivariate analysis for improving landslide hazard assessment and forecasting;
- alternative approaches and sources of hydro-meteorological data (e.g., reanalysis, remote sensing) for improving landslide prediction.
Kazuo Konagai, International Consortium on Landslides, Japan
Binod Tiwari, California State University, Fullerton, USA
Jouni Jokela, Geonex, Finland
Landslides and debris flows cause a significant loss of lives and properties, both annually and globally. Mitigation of such hazards not only saves lives and properties, but also helps in developing resilience against landslides and their associated hazards, both in the urban as well as rural settlement and infrastructures. There are various mitigation measures available in practice (soft and hard measures). With the improvement in global networking, sensing technology, and manufacturing, as well as construction technology, there have been significant improvement in both soft and hard measures to mitigate landslide hazards. This session is intended to provide a sharing and discussion platform for those who are currently performing research, designing, or implementing landslide mitigation works in practice. We request researchers/practitioners to submit abstracts on any research or case studies pertinent to landslide and debris flow mitigation.
Daniele Cazzuffi, CESI Milano, Italy
Sabatino Cuomo, University of Salerno, Italy
Zeljko Arbanas, University of Rijeka, Croatia
Binod Tiwari, California State University, Fullerton, USA
The Session is proposed as the follow-up of the same Session “Geosynthetics for slope stabilization” at WLF4 and WLF5.
The Session is jointly organized by experts belonging to IGS (International Geosynthetics Society) and ICL and is intended to promote the sharing of experiences, ideas, and best practices among the use of geosynthetics in the applications related to slope stability. Geosynthetics are polymeric products, commonly used for reinforcement and for erosion control of man-made soil structures and artificial slopes.
A scientific gap still exists in the field of (formerly natural) reinforced slopes, which combine the complexities of natural slopes (for instance, in terms of slope geometry and of hydraulic boundary conditions) to those of geosynthetics technology (for instance, the proper selection of materials, the installation techniques and the issues of durability and sustainability).
The reinforcement type, the soil mechanical properties and the anchorage system, as well as the internal structure and the shape of geosynthetics reinforcements lead to different behavior in terms of deformation and strength. Geotechnical characteristics of the soil influence the stress distribution at the soil-reinforcement interface. A topic of interest is the interaction behavior between soil and geosynthetics, generally measured through pull-out tests and direct shear tests, and the resulting properties have direct implications on the design of reinforced soil structures. Inclined plane tests are also widely used, especially in Europe, for measuring the interface properties of geosynthetics.
The increasing use of geosynthetics as reinforcing elements in soil structures eventually associated with vegetation has greatly encouraged sophisticated experimental work, including both laboratory models and centrifuge tests, and advanced numerical analyses, to gain a better insight into the reinforcement mechanisms, as well as to validate or improve the existing design methods.
Case histories on the application of geosynthetics for slope stabilization will be encouraged.
Marco Uzielli, University of Florence, Italy
Vittoria Capobianco, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway
Federico Preti, University of Florence, Italy
Lorenzo Borselli, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Mexico
Geotechnical approaches to the mitigation of landslide hazard have traditionally relied on the implementation of measures involving the use of artificial materials such as concrete, steel, and masonry. Nature-based solutions (NBS) involve the use of natural materials and are being increasingly used as they allow efficient, cost-effective, and sustainable slope stabilization for many site conditions and many types of slope movements. While NBS are increasingly used in many parts of the world, geotechnical design approaches and methods are still not yet well-established. The adoption and diffusion of NBS for slope stabilization would benefit from the availability of geotechnical frameworks and methods compatible with current design paradigms and codes. Moreover, the availability of clear criteria for the selection of NBS, as hazard mitigation measures based on site-specific conditions would provide a useful tool in the technical planning phases of landslide hazard mitigation.
This session welcomes innovative contributions addressing:
- approaches and methods for the comparative geotechnical assessment of the hazard mitigation potential of traditional, NBS, and hybrid solutions;
- methods for the geotechnical parameterization and modelling of NBS;
- theoretical, empirical, and data-driven geotechnical design methods for NBS and hybrid solutions;
- implementation of existing or new software tools for the geotechnical design of NBS and hybrid solutions;
- case-study applications.
Mapping, hazard, risk assessment and management
Theme 4 focuses on state-of-the-art approaches to mapping landslides and related geohazards, quantitative assessments of susceptibility and risk, and best practices for disaster resilience management. Nine sessions will examine the challenges in landslide inventory mapping, temporal-spatial assessments, modelling and prediction, and disaster-risk management; along with the challenges faced by transdisciplinary research in data-scare environments. Also addressed in Theme 4 sessions are the impacts of climate-driven landslides in subduction zones, mountainous regions and urban environments, and the vulnerability of people, communities and infrastructure, as well as past, current and future barriers and adaptation strategies.
Anja Dufresne, Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, RWTH-Aachen University, Germany
Xuanmei Fan, State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection, Chengdu University of Technology, China
Alexander Strom, Geodynamics Research Centre LLC, Moscow, Russia
Landslide inventories and databases, regional, global, topical (e.g., of the earthquake-triggered or rainfall-induced features), and event-based, are fundamental sources of data that form the basis for landslide susceptibility analysis, as well as hazard and risk assessments. They provide input data for several fields of landslide studies, e.g., to better understand landslide runout mechanisms, or to provide statistically representative relationships between various parameters of landslides and landslide dams on the one hand, and morphometric, geological and hydrological data on the other. Even simple mapping and compilation of regional landslide inventories provide valuable information for researchers, practitioners and decision makers. Principles of compilation of such inventories and databases have been described by many researchers working in different parts of the world and studying landslides of different types. However, the selection criteria used for such inventories, and the quantitative and qualitative parameters included in the databases are not always consistent. It complicates at a large extent the comparison of different databases and merging regional or topical databases. At the same time, global database(s) can increase statistical representativeness of the conclusions based on their analysis significantly. The main purpose of the proposed session is to:
- discuss principles of selecting landslides and landslide-related features, such as landslide dams that should be included in the databases and inventories;
- define more strictly various qualitative and quantitative parameters characterizing them;
- promote international cooperation in this field of landslide-related studies.
Thomas Glade, University of Vienna, Austria
Helene Petschko, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany
Stefan Steger, Eurac Research, Bozen/Bolzano, Italy
Bianca Carvalho Vieira, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Susana Pereira, University of Lisbon, Portugal
Spatial landslide assessments are of crucial importance in many parts of the world as their implementation can contribute to sustainable community development. Research on various topics such as landslide inventories, types of spatial models, validation techniques and scenario building incorporating land use and climate change, has been carried out for many decades. Since the final resulting landslide susceptibility maps, landslide intensity maps, dynamic susceptibility maps, or in some cases even hazard maps (taking into account the magnitude and frequency of potential landslide events), are of great interest to affected communities, their accuracy is most important in order to allow a reliable usage in any official application, e.g., within land use or intervention planning or as input for early warning.
In particular in the last years, many efforts have been made to advance, strengthen and move beyond the traditional concepts and models at the various research stages (e.g., inventory and data storage, modelling, accuracy assessment, map display). New challenges in these research domains include compound and cascading multi-hazards, extreme events, new and dynamic conditions due to global change, including climate change, as well as human modification of landscapes and how to introduce and reflect these correctly within spatial landslide assessments aiming towards hazard assessments.
This session aims at bringing together the currently undertaken research concepts and methods, as well as the variety of solutions and applications. Contributions on novel technological and methodological concepts are most welcome, as well as on examples of spatial landslide assessments. The core idea of this session is, to review the past and current methods, and to learn from each other in order to improve future approaches.
Txomin Bornaetxea, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Spain
Anika Braun, Technische Universität, Berlin, Germany
Ivan Marchesini, CNR-IRPI, Italy
The probability of slope movement occurring in a geographic zone, based on local terrain conditions, is defined as susceptibility. Multiple approaches have been described, applied, and proposed in the literature to assess the landslide susceptibility of an area, based on physical, conceptual, or statistical models.
Furthermore, thanks to the increasing accessibility of multiple spatial data resources, together with the rapid development of computational software, modelling landslide susceptibility has become relatively simple, but not always correct and reliable. In fact, quite often, insufficient attention is paid to the quality of the thematic data and to the representativeness of the landslide distribution used to train and/or validate the models.
In this session, following some considerations that emerged during the discussion of WLF5 session 2.2, we intend to emphasize how much data used to generate and assess the models affects the reliability of the susceptibility maps. Therefore, simple applications of models and models’ comparison are not in the scope of this session. Rather, we are interested to discuss weak points of landslide susceptibility zonation as for example:
- the suitability of any given landslide inventories for the production of susceptibility maps;
- the interaction among the scale of the inventory, the mapping units and the covariates;
- the quantity and suitability of covariates;
the inventory incompleteness or data scarcity using specific modelling approaches, subsetting the original data or limiting the mapping domain;
- new methods to evaluate and communicate model uncertainty.
Massimiliano Bordoni, University of Pavia, Italy
Roberto J. Marin, University of Antioquia, Colombia
Stella Moreiras, Instituto Argentino de Nivologia Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA)-Centro Cientifico Tecnologico (CCT)-CONICET, Argentina
Jie Dou, China University of Geosciences, China
Many regions worldwide are coping with the climatic global change, which is increasing the occurrence of extreme hydro-meteorological events. Shallow landslides involving the first meters of soil layers could increase significantly respect to actual and past scenarios, causing a modification of the susceptibility of a region and of the frequency of their triggering. These phenomena are causing significant damages to the environment and the territory, coupled with a general loss of shallow soil layers that are rich in organic matter and nutrients fundamental for agricultural areas. The triggering of these phenomena is related to the effect of intense rainfall events on soils that are usually unsaturated, with predisposition related to the hydrological conditions present in this cover. Hydrological field monitoring is, then, fundamental to understand the predisposing and triggering conditions of these landslides and to develop and calibrate reliable models for their spatio-temporal prediction.
This session aims to collect research concerning the most recent progress on monitoring, modeling and predicting shallow landslides at different spatial and temporal scales, covering a wide spectrum of approaches, from field and laboratory measurements to remote sensing techniques, modelling methods and mitigation measures. We encourage presentations related to:
- laboratory or field models to assess the physical, geological and hydrological conditions leading to the triggering of these phenomena;
- field hydrological monitoring for the assessment of predisposing and triggering conditions of shallow landslides;
- proximal and remote sensing methods for measurement and monitoring hillslopes prone to shallow landslides, to identify precursory evidence and to map new phenomena;
- development, application and validation of models for the prediction of shallow landslides;
- effects of climatic global changes and land use changes on the susceptibility and hazards towards shallow landslides;
- mitigation measures to reduce the proneness of a territory towards shallow landslides.
Mauro Rossi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica, Italy
Sandra Melzner, GEOCHANGE Consulting, Vienna, Austria
The investigation of the spatial and temporal occurrence of rockfalls is an essential part in a rockfall hazard and risk assessment.
The collection of rockfall data is normally adjusted according to the research objectives and the project framework e.g., the financial and temporal constraints, project goals, and size and settings of study areas. The characteristics and quality of the resulting rockfall catalogue on volumes depends on the:
- setting and characteristics of the study area (e.g., topography, geology, land use, forest cover);
- accuracy of the base and thematic maps;
- the methods and techniques used;
- type and availability of source(s) of information;
- time available for the investigation;
- experience of the investigators;
- available human, technological and economic resources.
Depending on the scale of investigation the individual rockfall features e.g., release area, impact points, talus slopes and single deposited boulders are represented by points, lines or polygons.
This session aims to collect and present experiences in the application of different methods to gather information on rockfalls such as:
- field mapping;
- systematic search of archives, chronicles, newspapers and technical and event reports;
- visual inspection and in-situ monitoring of rock cliffs;
- interpretation of remote sensing imagery or photogrammetry;
- rockfall dating techniques.
Furthermore, we encourage the submission and discussion of statistical methods to analyze the spatial, temporal and size information of rockfalls and of procedures to account data accuracy and representativeness and their impact on the statistical significance and uncertainty of rockfall hazard and risk assessments.
Rosa Marìa Mateos Ruiz, Geological and Mining Institut of Spain from the National Research Centre, Spain
Roberto Sarro, Geological and Mining Institut of Spain from the National Research Centre, Spain
Eleftheria Poyiadji, Head of the Earth Observation Expert Group from EuroGeoSurveys, Greece
Mateja Jemec Auflič, Geological Survey of Slovenia, Slovenia
Landslides represent one of the World’s major natural hazards and they have great socio-economic impacts. EuroGeoSurveys (Mateos et al. 2020) reports almost 4000 recent (2015-2017) damaging landslides events in Europe resulting in 39 fatalities and 155 injuries, destruction to housing, infrastructure and properties. This study reveals almost 48 million people in Europe living in areas with high and very high degree of susceptibility to landslides.
The increasing consumption of land resources for urban purposes is triggering huge problems and challenges in a globalized world. Urban sprawl has occurred in most countries worldwide and is predicted to continue. From 2000 to 2006, Europe lost 1.120 km2 per year of natural areas to urban or other artificial land development (EEA, 2016) and it is expected that around 77.500 km2 will be converted to urban areas for 2030. At a global scale, the total area covered by the world’s cities is set to triple in the next 40 years, eating up farmland and natural spaces, in Asia and Africa in particular.
This uncontrolled urban expansion emphasizes social, economic and environmental impacts and is leading to a large increase in people living in -locations prone to landslides. Modifications of natural conditions for urban development usually result in deforestation, blocking of natural drainage, slope cuts, earthmoving, overloads, etc. Moreover, climate change is expected to alter frequency and intensity of precipitations, having consequences on the frequency and distribution of landslides. Thus, there is an emerging appeal for developing new tools and products to reduce impact of landslides in urban areas, as well as for adopting stronger policies to regulate the integration of landslide hazard into urban planning.
We would like to invite you to participate in this session, which focus primarily on new tools, methodologies and innovative approaches to evaluate landslide activity in urban areas and predict their potential impacts. Contribution to this session will also provide scientific instruments to support the capacities of the actors implied in the urban planning.
Giovanna Vessia, University “G. D’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, Italy
Nicola Sciarra, University “G. D’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, Italy
Mario Luigi Rainone, University “G. D’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara, Italy
Christian Conoscenti, University of Palermo, Italy
It is well known that subduction zones throughout the planet are highly seismically active areas affected by high geological hazards such as landslides, due to their geological, seismic-tectonic, volcanic, geomorphological, and hydrogeological characteristics. Here high magnitude earthquake events take place both in-depth along the subduction planes and as shallower intraplate seismicity. Volcanic activity, related to the subduction zones, periodically deposits fine and granular deposits (within a radius of thousands of meters), with peculiar hydraulic and slope stability features that threatened several human settlements worldwide. These zones are typical of Central America trench and along the coast of Chile and the Andes, as well as in-pit arch systems such as Japan and Mariana Trench. In these territories, landslides are frequent and threaten especially intensively urbanized contexts, causing a high level of risk. This special session intends to bring together researchers and practitioners to exchange and discuss experiences, good practices, and new methods to perform both site characterization, landslide recognition, and numerical simulations in subduction zones. The main focus of this session is the seismically induced landslides from the regional scale up to the slope scale. In addition, multi-hazard analyses (under hydrogeological, seismic, and volcanic actions) in landslide stability assessment are also warmly welcomed.
Dario Peduto, Department of Civil Engineering University of Salerno, Italy
Olga Mavrouli, Department of Civil Engineering University of West Attica, Greece
Mike Winter, Winter Associates Limited, UK
Paola Salvati, CNR IRPI, Italy
Impact-based risk assessment and forecasting provides the information needed to minimize the effects of landslides. in this framework the vulnerability of people, communities, structures, infrastructure is central in that.
This session aims at bringing together and exchange experiences on different aspects of landslide impacts and consequences, the relationships between the frequency and intensity of damaging events and the severity of their consequences, as well as to explore methods for the assessment of the vulnerability at multiple scales and from different perspectives from physical to social, economic, functional, and environmental.
Contributions on the concepts, methods and tools used to quantitatively evaluate vulnerability, risk, and loss due to landslide hazards and their secondary effects, as well as measures for their reduction are welcomed. Contributions on damage or destruction assessment and characterization, with reference to tangible and operating assets and human loss are encouraged. Empirical or numerical approaches for the dynamic spatio-temporal modelling of the impacts and the related uncertainties are of particular interest. Approaches that include, but are not limited to, innovative applications of remote sensing satellite data, ground based (e.g., optical fibers) data, laser scanner and unmanned aerial vehicle monitoring are also expected. Papers are also welcomed on the integration of vulnerability into systemic risk analysis.
Claudia Meisina, University of Pavia, Italy
Thomas Glade, University of Vienna, Austria
Filippo Catani, University of Padova, Italy
Yazidhi Bamutaze, Makerere University, Uganda
Agricultural management practices and de- or reforestation of areas have strong impacts on the environment. Land use causes important effects in the soil system, influencing its physical, hydrological, chemical and biological properties through the different slope management techniques. Agricultural practices can change in time and space, for economic reasons, new regulations or changing forestry operations, agricultural, silvicultural or horticultural demand. Landslides, often triggered by intense rainfalls or the combination of snow melt and precipitation, frequently affect forestry and crops in hilly terrain, often creating severe economic damages and removing organic matter and nutrients fundamental for soil fertility. These processes, exacerbated by current slope management practices or by land use changes, are particularly relevant in different forestry and agricultural areas all over the world.
This session will present the recent scientific research on the interactions between landslides occurrence and land use and slope management practices in cultivated slopes covering a wide spectrum of technologies, ranging from field and laboratory measurements to remote sensing, modelling approaches and mitigation as well as adaptation measures. The main objective is to create synergy among scientists to discuss about traditional and innovative methodological approaches to better understand landslide occurrence in cultivated regions. Contributions concerning mitigation and adaptation measures that may help farmers and policy makers are also welcome.
We encourage contributions including:
- proximal and remote sensing for measurement and monitoring the effects of land use and slope management practices on landslide occurrence;
- model implementation, parameterization, uncertainties for the prediction of landslides in cultivated areas;
- modelling scenarios of the effects of land use and/ or climate changes on landslide occurrence;
- mitigation and adaptation measures and slope management practices for reducing landslides susceptibility of cultivated terrains.
Mihai Micu, Romanian Academy – Institute of Geography, Bucharest, Romania
Olivier Dewitte, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium
Olena Ivanik, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Department of General and Historical Geology, Institute of Geology, Kyiv, Ukraine
Judith Uwihirwe, University of Rwanda, Department of Irrigation and Drainage, School of Agricultural Engineering, College of Agriculture Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Kigali, Rwanda
Veronica Zumpano, Italian National Research Council, Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection, Bari, Italy
There are numerous areas throughout the world, highly exposed to an increased landslide threat (due to climate change, human pressure on the environment, and population growth), which do not benefit from rich datasets, but where landslide risk mitigation strategies are equally asked by various authorities. In such data-scarce environments, the reduced quality of the datasets, their discontinuous distributions in both space and time and/or their heterogeneous formats are often imposing reactive risk management strategies. The challenges that arise during the development of risk management strategies are enhanced by the epistemic uncertainties associated with the design of appropriate predictive models which are using discontinuous and unharmonized databases. Furthermore, presently, the transdisciplinary research that institutes global sustainability is emphasizing the importance of developing open and inclusive platforms for observing and monitoring such processes, and the proactive participation of a wide range of stakeholders (policy-makers, funders, academics, business) in co-designing and co-producing applied research or timely services through new, improved generations of integrated Earth system models. This highly recommended and effective inter-to-transdisciplinary collaboration across natural, social, economical and technological sciences concludes with the necessity of solution-oriented research for global sustainability. However, all these requirements may be fulfilled only using high quality, accurate, harmonized and continuous data, which may allow the proper development of proactive risk management measures. This session is calling for presentations showing lessons learnt from data-scarce environments, highlighting applied strategies of appropriate/optimal landslide risk management frameworks development as well as for recommendations on how the strategies may be improved while still facing the above-mentioned constraints.
Climate change, extreme weather, earthquakes and landslides
Theme 5 collects various issues of landslide triggering by meteorological factors or earthquakes in a multi-hazard, holistic view – being aware that identifying the exact landslide triggers’ identification is challenging. Climate variables and their changes have direct (e.g. changes in rainfall regimes) and indirect (e.g. variations in land cover/use) impacts on landslides – and this is becoming even more evident under global warming. Rising temperatures lead to glacier retreats, and permafrost thaw, which result in a higher landslide hazard in high mountain, glacial, periglacial, and polar environments. Climate change also affects forest fires, which lead to a higher landslide and soil erosion risk. However, quantifying the effects of climate change on slope stability and landslide risk is difficult and uncertain. Earthquakes represent the other main trigger of landslides of different types. Landslide occurrence frequency and magnitude may rise where large earthquakes occur. Therefore, the analysis of earthquake-induced landslides and the evaluation of seismic slope stability conditions are relevant topics that need a multi-hazard approach.
Corrado Camera, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra “A. Desio”, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy
Guido Rianna, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Caserta, Italy
Jan Blahůt, Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia
Martina Böhme, Section for Geohazard and Earth observation, Geological survey of Norway, Trondheim, Norway
Alfredo Reder, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Italy
Greg M. Stock, National Park Service, Yosemite National Park, California, USA
The possible variations in weather patterns induced by climate change can directly influence predisposing and triggering conditions leading to landslide events. This influence of atmospheric drivers can be different according to the landslide type and kinematics (e.g., rock slope failures, landslides in soils). In addition, climate change can act on the landslide predisposition of a specific area in an indirect way, inducing substantial variations in the land cover over the slopes and the exposure in all the areas potentially affected by the events. In this regard, the need for approaches that can clarify the relationships between climate change induced processes and landslide events is increasingly pressing. Such knowledge is fundamental to design and promote effective climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies.
In this session, we hope to spark discussion on the interactions of climate change- related processes and their effects on different landslide types across varied geographical contexts and scales. We welcome innovative contributions regarding experimental and monitoring studies (both in the laboratory and in situ), coupled with modelling approaches and statistical analyses, with the major aim of improving the understanding of processes and their expected modifications and designing and implementing protection measures in a way that accounts for climate change. Studies adopting novel and combined methodologies are particularly welcome.
Costanza Morino – Laboratoire EDYTEM, CNRS UMR 5204, Université Savoie Mont-Blanc, Le Bourget-du-Lac, France
Mylène Jacquemart – Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology and Glaciology (VAW), ETH Zurich and Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), Birmensdorf, Switzerland
Jan Blahůt, Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechia
Giulia Magnarini, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, UK
Daniel Dräbing, University of Bayreuth – Chair of Geomorphology, Bayreuth, Germany
Sam McColl, GNS Science, Wellington, New Zealand
The focus of this session is on landslides in cold regions on Earth and extraterrestrial planetary bodies. On Earth, natural and anthropogenic climate changes alter temperature and precipitation patterns, which are preparing and triggering factors for various types of landslides. The current observed and modelled pattern change is particularly pronounced in the global cryosphere, resulting in glacier retreat over the past decades, permafrost warming or thawing, and a decline in snow cover. As a consequence, glacial debutressing, ice unloading and subsurface ice loss lead to changes in cryostatic, hydraulic, and hydrologic conditions. In conjunction with rapid snowmelt, intense and/or prolonged precipitation, these processes lead to amplified rock stresses, mass-failure acceleration and an increase in slope-instability magnitude and frequency.
Cold environments exist on planetary bodies ranging from the inner, terrestrial planets to the icy moons of Saturn, as well as comets and asteroids and can be affected by landsliding. On Mars, thousands of landslides are found at mid- and high latitudes. Here, erosive processes, flows and mass movements are thought to be associated with glacial retreat, snow melt and thaw of subsurface ice due to impact cratering. The study of terrestrial and extra-planetary landslides can mutually benefit both Earth and planetary landslide scientists.
In this session, we aim at bringing together scientists and practitioners interested in all aspects of cryospheric landslides on Earth and extraterrestrial planetary bodies. We welcome innovative contributions focusing on an improved geological and geomorphological understanding of the physical processes involved, in-laboratory and in-situ experimental studies, mapping, monitoring, and modelling of slope stability and engineering applications. Studies adopting novel approaches and combined methodologies are particularly welcome.
Sumit Sen, Centre of Excellence in Disaster Mitigation and Management, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India
Ugur Ozturk, Scientist, University of Potsdam, Germany
Roopam Shukla, Centre of Excellence in Disaster Mitigation and Management, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India
Kristen Cook, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany
Siva Srikrishnan, Centre of Excellence in Disaster Mitigation and Management, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India
Forced by climate change and intensely driven extreme weather, landslides, debris flows, and flash floods are a recurrent phenomenon in the Himalayas. Due to the tectonic settings, fragility and high climate sensitivity, the Himalayan landscape is susceptible to aforementioned geohazards, frequently occurring as a cascade. Poignant examples are the 1998 and 2017 Malpa landslides, the 2013 Uttarakhand flash floods and landslides, and the 2021 rock-ice avalanche induced debris flows and flash floods in Chamoli. Events like these are not a single hazard; instead, they are disaster chains with significant impacts due to their cascading nature. The complexity of these events multitudes during a disaster chain and require paradigm shift approaches involving multidisciplinary research. Moreover, it is also equally critical to understand pre-existing community networks that are drawn upon during such natural disasters, for fostering long-term resilience and boosting recovery. Therefore, approaches covering multi-disciplinary domains, i.e., atmosphere sciences, hydrology, geomorphology, geotechnics, geography, social science, anthropology are needed to holistically understand the geohazard mechanisms and to develop disaster mitigation methods against such cascading disasters.
This session invites abstracts on all four pillars of disaster management, starting from the preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation stages of landslides, mainly focusing on landslide-induced disaster chain events in the Himalayas.
We welcome contributions from research topics (but not restricted to):
- remote-sensing-based observations and early detection of slope displacements;
- numerical model-based weather prediction and forecast;
- numerical modelling of landslide-induced disaster chain (starting from the trigger of rockslide/avalanche, runout, river damming and flooding);
- in-situ monitoring of hillslope hydrology;
- reduced-scale experimental approaches in landslide dynamics;
- risk/vulnerability assessment, theories and models of reducing vulnerabilities and adaptation to landslide hazard.
Giuseppe Mandrone, Università di Torino, Italy
Dario Peduto, Università di Salerno, Italy
Climate change is having far-reaching effects ranging from unprecedented forest fires, droughts and extreme rainfall events, which are though to experience a further increase in frequency and severity, affecting areas not endangered in the past. Heat waves are supposed to become more frequent and longer lasting, posing a major economic and health risk. This climatic scenario represents the worst situation for the development of forest fires and the associated risks.
Forest fires lead to new landslide-prone slopes, and to a higher risk of landslides, soil erosion, ecosystems variations and water quality problems. This leads to a cascading combination of processes, which results in a sequence of hazards connected through causal relationships and to an increased overall risk.
This session aims at presenting examples of studies aimed at increasing the resilience to climate change risks, from post-wildfire effects on slopes improving the knowledge on soil and subsoil behavior and monitoring systems, increasing awareness, developing integrated strategies, testing solutions.
We encourage contributions from experts in engineering, geology, forestry and soil scientists, ecologist, social scientist, territory planners and from other fields , each one involved in studies and practical operation on post-wildfire effects and in mitigations and planning actions.
Paolo Frattini, University of Milano Bicocca, Italy
Hans-Balder Havenith, Liege University, Belgium
Giovanni Forte, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Italy
Odin Marc, CNRS – Geosciences Environnement Toulouse, France
Salvatore Martino, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Italy
The occurrence of earthquakes can produce huge damages, mainly due to ground shaking and the permanent deformations of the ground. The latter encompasses different kind of phenomena such as soil liquefaction, ground subsidence, surface faulting and landslides, which report the seismic hazard in a wider multi-hazard perspective. Several post-earthquake reports and field studies highlighted that landsliding is the most frequent earthquake-induced ground effect, as seismic areas are frequently located in mountainous settings characterized by steep slopes.
Earthquake-induced landslides can affect wide areas with damages related to the full collapse or loss in functionality of facilities, roads, pipelines, and other lifelines. Therefore, the evaluation of seismic stability conditions of slopes, embankments and other earth-structures represents an important topic in the assessment of regional seismic hazard. The purpose of this session is to provide a forum for discussion among researchers and other professionals who study landslides and earthquake-induced phenomena. Topics of interest include case histories of earthquake-triggered landslides, analysis of coseismic and post-earthquake landslide inventories, investigation and monitoring, dynamic slope stability of natural and man-made slopes, runout modelling, and the effect of topographic amplification on landslide triggering.
Daniel Pradel, Ohio State University, USA
Navid H. Jafari, Louisiana State University, USA
Miguel Pando, Drexel University, USA
Kenneth S Hughes Merz, University of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico
Alesandra Morales, University of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico
Climate model simulations project an increase in intensity as well as frequency of climatic extreme events, partly as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Extreme precipitation events often cause widespread landsliding on natural hillsides, as well as slope instabilities in earth dams and levees. Climate model projections are consistent with global trends observed since the 1960’ in extreme precipitation events. In 2017 alone, natural disasters and climatic extremes resulted in $306B in damages in the USA, which is now the costliest disaster year on record.
In recent years, extreme events have resulted in a considerable number of landslides, as well as some unprecedented slope failures, e.g., in 2017 Hurricane Mari a triggered more than 70,000 landslides in Puerto Rico (an island ~150 km by 50 km) and in 2020, extreme precipitation resulted in a slope instability triggered by static liquefaction at the Edenville Dam that resulted in ~$300M in damages. Mitigating the consequences of extreme events requires geo-professionals to take timely actions including, but not limited to: evaluation of existing slopes and earthen structures, design and construction of protective structures in areas prone to debris flows, refinement of slope designs, and development of new climate-adaptive measures and risk assessment tools to mitigate the reactivation of landslides.
The proposed session will concentrate on slope failure case histories during recent extreme events, bringing together scholars and geo-professionals that have investigated them. We hope to attract multi-disciplinary contributions that address not only the causes and consequences of landslides, but also describe pre-event mitigation techniques, timely actions taken immediately post-events, and mitigation/reinforcement techniques for long-term hazard reduction. We will also invite submissions that address design, construction, and refinement of protective structures and systems in areas with increased hazard, and those that outline development of new climate-adaptive models, measures, and risk assessment tools.
Yi Zhang, Lanzhou University, School of Earth Sciences, China
Dongxia Yue, Lanzhou University, College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Cina
Mike Winter, Winter Associates Limited, Edinburgh, UK
Tom Dijkstra, Loughborough University, School of Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering, UK
Guan Chen, Lanzhou University, School of Earth Sciences, China
Landscape evolution is driven by, among other factors, interacting tectonic, climatic, biological and anthropogenic environments and processes. Advancing our knowledge of how these processes affect the dynamics of current (and future) landscapes is required to achieve better landslide hazard and risk management, particularly in mountainous terrains.
These processes operate at different timescales and have variable effects on landslide hazard and risk. In upland mountainous regions landslide signatures (in the sense of their distribution and typical mechanisms) are often strongly conditioned by the (neo-)tectonic history providing a legacy of processes acting over very long timescales. Climate provides further conditioning of the landscape and, within the lifespan of typical societal interventions in these landscapes, provides changing conditions for slope processes that need to be incorporated into the assessment of landslide hazard and risk. Anthropogenic drivers in the form of, for example, expanding footprints of urban and infrastructure development provide further stresses in these dynamic landscapes that need careful scrutiny.
A better understanding of how landscapes change in response to these multiple drivers will provide valuable insights into impacts on the resilience of communities living in these dynamic landscapes. In turn this will enable development and implementation of effective strategies to manage and reduce disaster risk.
In this session we welcome contributions that take a broad view of the issues affecting these dynamic landscapes in relation to landslide hazard and risk, and associated disaster risk management and mitigation. In particular, we welcome contributions that incorporate perspectives from natural and social sciences and engineering and this session is therefore intended to encourage discussions around inter-disciplinary approaches to address management and mitigation of landslide risk.
Progress in landslide science and applications
Climate change, population growth, urbanization and deforestation are the main causes of the increasing number of landslides in the world and, consequently, increasing damage and casualties. Significant progress has been made in landslide research in response to the consequences of landslides and for the purposes of mitigation, prevention, and early warning. The accelerated development of modern technologies enables the availability of an increasing number of techniques and equipment used in the landslide science. New technologies, testing, observation, and measurement techniques as well as the related equipment are enabling new areas of landslide research by opening new chapters and advances in landslide research and its application. Theme 6 “progress in landslide science and applications” contains sessions related to particular advances in landslide science and applications associated with the development of modern technologies and equipment, as well as some very specific topics in very narrow areas of landslide research, the causes of landslides and measures to mitigate the consequences of landslides.
Luigi Guerriero, Federico II University of Naples, Department of Earth, Environmental and Resource Sciences, Italy
Lisa Borgatti, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Department of Civil, Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, Italy
Diego Di Martire, Federico II University of Naples, Department of Earth, Environmental and Resource Sciences, Italy
Mirko Francioni, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, Italy
Doug Stead, Simon Fraser University, Department of Earth Sciences, Canada
Over the last two decades the approach to the investigation of landslides involving rocks and soils has changed drastically. The advent of new technologies and codes for slope characterization, monitoring and analyses, as well as an improved understanding of the significance of deformational features, have led to a step-change increase in the deciphering of landslide behavior. This session aims to gather high-quality and innovative contributions that advance the understanding about landslide deformational features and mechanisms through models and/or case studies. Conceptual models should highlight failure mechanisms and evolution of complex kinematic landslides including brittle failure (damage), toe breakout, step-path failure, active-passive block deformation and long-term creep. Case studies should advance the state-of-the-art in the integration of slope characterization, modelling and monitoring data, with the goal of improving the understanding of the factors controlling internal slope deformations and their evolution. Slope characterization and monitoring methods include, respectively: i) conventional and innovative characterization/survey methods, such as surface mapping of deformational structures, geological engineering surveys, boreholes data, geotechnical and discrete fracture network analysis, geo-physical data, LiDAR, photogrammetry and laser scanning; ii) surface and in-depth monitoring data, such as GNSS, change detection and InSAR (terrestrial and satellite-based) analyses, slope inclinometer, fiber optics, piezometers, seismicity, acoustic emissions, etc. The numerical models should be constrained wherever possible through slope monitoring and should advance the understanding upon internal and surface slope deformation and behavior.
Filip Hartvich, Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic
Sebastian Uhlemann, Earth and Environmental Sciences Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA
Petr Taborik, Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic
Geophysical surveying became an integral and crucial part of landslide research in recent years. Its fast ascent has been propelled mainly by three factors: i) development of highly-accurate, portable, and automated measuring devices; (ii) advanced numerical approaches to reconstruct the subsurface resistivity distribution spatially and over time at high resolutions; (iii) the non-invasive and volumetric nature of geophysical imaging, which offers two key advantages: cost-efficiency (particularly compared to trenches and boreholes), and the possibility to be applied in protected or sensitive environments.
Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is the most widely used technique in landslide research, as it can provide answers to most frequent research questions (depth of sliding plane, internal composition of landslide, structural and hydrological conditions, etc.). Thanks to recent developments, ERT data can be acquired relatively quickly and easily, and compared to many other techniques data processing and interpretation is less complicated. Nowadays, data can be acquired in 3D, allowing to understand the highly heterogeneous subsurface distributions, characteristic for landslide systems. Recently, the combination of ERT with other geophysical or non-geophysical data has opened new opportunities to provide integrated, high-resolution data sets of estimates of geotechnical and hydrological parameters relevant to landslide research. Repeated measurements add another quality to the survey: time.
This session will bring together ERT enthusiasts working on various landslides, rockfalls, debris flows, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations, and other types of widely conceived slope deformations to meet and share their experience with applications and case studies. All contributions within this wide scope are welcome, as presentations of new ideas, latest development and innovative applications. We particularly encourage multi-method applications, linking ERT data with other geophysical or non-geophysical data streams, and physical models of landslide processes.
Jean-Philippe Malet, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, School and Observatory of Earth Sciences, University of Strasbourg, France
Clement Michoud, Terranum, Switzerland
Dalia Kirschbaum, National Aeronautics and Space Administration – Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), USA
Antonio Abellan, Centre for Research on the Alpine Environment (CREALP), Switzerland
Floriane Provost, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, School and Observatory of Earth Sciences, University of Strasbourg, France
One of the current challenges in landslide science and operational applications is the continuous evolution of technologies (sensors, geodatabases, models), making it difficult for users to be up to date and to take advantage of these continuous data flows and infer relevant information.
The development of online services and processing platforms (HPC, cloud computing, Big Data analysis, machine/deep learning) are now emerging, enabling the fusion of many landslide data sources and models. These technologies target both the public and private sectors and several aspects of landslide research, from earth observation-based services, to forecasting and simulation platforms. It thus aims to support many stakeholder applications, from rapid post-disaster mapping to long-term land use planning.
For this session, we invite abstracts that present operational landslide data exploitation centers to generate products from observations, but also to provide services to support surveys and warning systems, and to interface with models. By presenting these platforms, we hope to initiate a discussion among the different actors involved in the creation and use of landslide services, addressing gaps and needs for faster uptakes.
Filippo Catani, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Padova, Italy
Xuanmei Fan, SKLGP, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, China
Biswajeet Pradhan, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Cees Van Westen, ITC, Twente University, Twente, Netherlands
Yunus Ali Pulpadan, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, India
Maneesha Ramesh, Amrita University, India
The recent technological advances in space and information science have made available to the geoscientist resources and data that were unthinkable a few years ago. This, in turn, has produced an overwhelming quantity of raw, noisy information, and a flourishing of Machine Learning methods to analyze and synthesize them into a usable form. Earth Observation tools, numerical deterministic and probabilistic modeling, ground sensor networks, autonomous vehicle surveying, and crowdsourced data are all nowadays fundamental components for the management of landslide risk. All of them measure, record, store, or produce huge amounts of information that are, for the most part, affected by errors and approximations. This session is devoted to the presentation of innovative methods and applications, based on broadly defined machine learning techniques, that can contribute to the improvement of any sector of landslide science by reducing such uncertainties, errors, and limitations. In particular, we expect contributions covering topics such as AI-driven data mining on EO multi-temporal data stacks, landslide mapping and monitoring with deep learning, noise and error reduction in monitoring time series by neural networks, feature selection on large multivariate datasets via ML to define landslide hazard and triggering conditions, machine intelligence and deep learning applied to the management of field instrumentation and surveying vehicles, and AI-driven data assimilation for numerical models at all scales. Both theoretical and practical contributions are welcome, working at all scales.
Benjamin Mirus, U.S. Geological Survey, USA
Luca Piciullo, Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway
Elena Leonarduzzi, Princeton University, USA
Maneesha Vinodini Ramesh, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, India
Wei-Li Liang, National Taiwan University, Taiwan
Pantaleone De Vita, University of Naples, Federico II, Italy
Rainfall-induced landslides pose a great threat to human life, structures, and economic activities worldwide. Ongoing urbanization, forest-agriculture conversion and climate changes have tremendously increased the risk of losses due to landsliding.
Although commonly referred to as rainfall triggering, activity of such landslides is in fact associated with subsurface water flow that induces changes in stresses within hillslope materials. As a result, landslides research has focused on various methods for monitoring and modelling soil water content, unsaturated pore-water pressures, and water-table dynamics to identify landslide initiation processes and provide advanced warning of increased landslide activity. Furthermore, recent scientific and technical advances bring the employment of real-time hydrological monitoring within reach. When coupled with hydromechanical models and accurate short-term forecasts of meteorological conditions (e.g., rainfall, snowmelt, and temperatures), hydrologic monitoring can inform operational landslide early warning systems (LEWS) that may be applied locally and potentially even at regional scales. Therefore, much effort is now employed in the use of such monitoring instruments to build monitoring networks remotely accessible in real-time. Hereto, robust hydrological monitoring data and reliable hydrological modelling with appropriate inputs and careful model validation are key to ensure spatio-temporal coverage and provide the other hydrological estimates required for stability assessments.
This session is focused on the hydrological processes leading to slope instability, as well as on analyses aimed at the definition of rainfall, hydrometeorological, or other thresholds for LEWS. We welcome innovative contributions and scientific advances concerning the use of hydrological monitoring and modeling for slope stability analyses to understand past landslide activity and provide real-time actionable information for LEWS, situational awareness, and loss reduction.
Elena Benedetta Masi, University of Florence, Italy
Wei Wu, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria
Massimiliano Bordoni, University of Pavia, Italy
Mariagiovanna Moscariello, University of Salerno, Italy
Jorge Pedro Galve, University of Granada, Spain
The crucial role of plants in the stability of the shallowest soil layers is widely recognized by the academic and practitioner communities. Vegetation affects the mechanical and hydrological soil behavior through different mechanisms of different scales.
There is growing interest in the analysis and quantification of the influence exerted by the vegetation on the stability of shallow landslides, and the relevant literature has been increasing steadily in recent years. However, the interaction between plants and environment are often complex and ever changing, and there is urgent need for better understanding and modelling the effects of vegetation in slope stability. This session is devoted to the topic of vegetation and soil slopes in the widest sense.
We are particularly interested in contributions dealing with the mechanical and hydrological effect of plants on the shallow landslides, as well as the canopy interception, evapotranspiration and root reinforcement. Other topics related to vegetation and slope stability are also welcome. Contributions to the following topics are particularly encouraged:
- Consideration of root reinforcement in slope stability models;
- Evaluation of temporal and spatial variability of root reinforcement;
- Approaches to estimate the root reinforcement in wide areas for distributed slope stability analyses;
- Quantification and modelling of the canopy interception;
- Influence of soil moisture content on the root cohesion;
- Hydrological factor of plant and plant roots;
- Laboratory and field tests on effect of vegetation;
- Case studies on vegetated slopes.
Sara Cucchiaro, University of Padova, Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry, Italy
Elisa Arnone, University of Udine, Polytechnic Department of Engineering and Architecture, Italy
Aberto Beinat, University of Udine, Polytechnic Department of Engineering and Architecture, Italy
Paolo Tarolli, University of Padova, Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry, Italy
In the last two decades, High-Resolution Topography (HRT; e.g., photogrammetry, LiDAR, GNSS) has provided new opportunities to monitor and characterize slope instability processes at different scales and time. Indeed, some HRT techniques offer the opportunity to realize multi-temporal (4D) surveys with sufficient frequency to detect changes and analyze the landslide phenomena features at an appropriately temporal scale at which surface processes operate. HRT surveys enabled the realization of 4D Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) that can be used to derive Difference of DTMs (e.g., DoDs), useful to monitor geomorphic changes and quantify volumes of erosion and deposition process. Furthermore, DTMs and sediment volumes estimation can be exploited as benchmarks and inputs for spatial-distributed hydrological-stability modelling in steep slopes agricultural areas subject to instability phenomena. Indeed, steep-slope agricultural landscapes are increasingly exposed to slope instability processes due to natural (e.g., growing rainfall aggressiveness) and anthropogenic factors (e.g., unsuitable maintenance or agronomic practices, unsustainable use of water). The synergistic use of up-to-date HRT information together with models that predict the possible evolution scenarios can be fundamental to acquire information for planning interventions and to develop early warning systems for natural hazards and risk management in agricultural areas.
This session will provide an overview of the last advances on this problem and is dedicated to multidisciplinary contributions focused on:
- The use and the highly recommended fusion of different HRT techniques and problems to realize 4D surveys (e.g., precision, co-registration and uncertainties) in steep slopes, with an evaluation of their respective pros and cons focusing also on future opportunities;
- Improvement and development of hazard/risk forecasting models from timely post-event HRT surveys;
- New prospective on spatially distributed hydrological-stability modelling which takes advantages of the new HRT surveys.
Federico Di Traglia, National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics (OGS), Italy
Lorenzo Borselli, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (UASLP), Instituto de Geologia, Facultad De Ingenieria, Mexico
Irene Manzella, Department of Applied Earth Sciences (AES), Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, Netherland
Lauren N. Schaefer, Geologic Hazards Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Colorado, USA
Morelia Urlaub, GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany
Onshore and subaqueous landslides in volcanic environments range from large lateral collapses to shallow debris remobilizations, which vary from slow and continuous to sudden and catastrophic. These events and their cascading effects can extend to the volcano periphery, affecting areas and populations far from the volcanic center. For example, rock or debris avalanches and lahars can devastate vast areas, resulting in fatalities, damage, and changes to the landscape and sudden flank failures in island, coastal, or submarine volcanoes can generate tsunamis that can reach coastal areas tens of kilometers away from the source. These large events are low in frequency but high in intensity which make them difficult to study and can result in significant local and regional hazards, often with catastrophic consequences.
In volcanic areas slope instability is influenced by the complex interactions between tectonics, magmatic fluids, meteorological conditions, material alteration, eruptive events, and gravitational processes, leading to significant changes in flow rheology along the slope and to complicated cascading processes which are challenging to understand and predict.
As a consequence, successful strategies for landslide hazard assessments in volcanic environments need to involve integrated methodologies for detection, mapping, monitoring, and modelling that are able to capture their complex nature. This session encourages multidisciplinary contributions that integrate onshore and offshore investigations, field-based geological studies, geomorphological mapping, volcanic rocks and deposits characterization, geophysical investigations, remote sensing, and analytical, numerical and analogical modelling to tackle the challenging and fascinating study of these processes.
Paola Revellino, Department of Sciences and Technologies, University of Sannio
Domenico Calcaterra, Department of Earth, Environment and Resources Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Veronica Tofani, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Florence, Italy
Andrea Cevasco, Environment and Life Sciences, University of Genova, Department of Earth, Italy
Mirko Francioni, Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Urbino
Italy is one of the European countries most affected by landslides. According to the Italian Landslide Inventory (IFFI Project) carried out by ISPRA along with the Regions and Autonomous Provinces, Italy counts more than 620,000 landslides affecting an area of 23,700 km2, equal to 7.9% of the national territory. In this country, landslides are the natural hazard that occurs with the highest frequency, and after earthquakes, they are responsible for the most casualties and damage to buildings and infrastructure. The International Disaster Database of the Centre for Research and Epidemiology of Disasters (EM-DAT) reports that in the period 1900-2022, Italy ranks second in the world for total estimated damage due to landslide disasters with a total figure of over 3 billion USD.
In this framework the Italian Association of Engineering Geology and the Environment (AIGAA) proposes a scientific session addressed to contributions related to state-of-the-art applications, future developments, and scientific perspectives of landslide research in Italy. The contributions can be related, but are not limited to, the following topics:
- Landslide detection and mapping at local and regional scale;
- Physical and numerical landslide modelling;
- Landslide hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment;
- Landslide monitoring and prediction
Local and regional experiences on early warning systems;
- Local and regional experiences and policies for landslide risk reduction and safety improvements.